Ciphers sometimes spelt cyphers are also known as encryption algorithms. They are a series of set steps, processes or procedures an encryption engine follows to encrypt or decrypt data.
They are simply systems for encrypting or decrypting data. A cipher uses the keys in the encryption engine to convert the original data from plain text into a scrambled form known as cipher text.
The only way to decrypt the encrypted data is using a corresponding decryption key. There are many types of ciphers such as block ciphers, stream ciphers, hill ciphers, transposition ciphers, ceased ciphers, etc.
Security is an important component of any database architecture. It is vital that data is secured from corruption from viruses and also from attackers such as hackers who might use the data for nefarious purposes.
Encryption has proven to be one effective tool to protect and secure data from attackers. Proper management of an encrption engine would ensure your database is secured from any form of unauthorized access.